A project on rural unemployment in India. This project will help you to learn about:- 1. Introduction to Rural Unemployment 2. Causes of Rural Unemployment 3. Remedial Measures 4. Steps to Solve the Problem 5. Government Policy Measures.
1. Introduction to Rural Unemployment:
In a common sense, unemployment is a situation characterized when any one is not gainfully employed in a productive activity. It means that an unemployed person is one who is seeking any work for wages but is unable to find any job suited to his capacity. From this view one can easily make an idea of voluntarily and involuntarily unemployed.
Obviously, in an economy, there is a section of working population who is not interested in any gainful job and still others are interested in employment at wage rates higher than those prevailing in the labour market.
Prof. Keynes calls this type of labour force as voluntarily unemployed. According to him, involuntarily unemployment refers to a situation in which people are ready to accept work at prevailing wage rate but fail to get the same wage.
According to the Agricultural Labour Enquiry Committee Report, “the extent of under-employment is on the average, 82 days of unemployment in a year for 84 per cent of agricultural labours who have some employment during the year.”
2. Causes of Rural Unemployment:
In this connection, the Fourth 5-years Plan observed: “In many parts of the country, there is heavy pressure of population on land. The agricultural economy is unable to provide continuous work enough the year. The slack agricultural season frequently extends from 3 to 6 months. The growth of population, the pace at which non-agricultural activities are developing within and outside the rural economy and greater resort by owners of land to personal cultivation have tended to increase the strains of poverty for cultivators with marginal holdings and large numbers of landless agricultural workers. Even favourably situated areas show a considerable surplus of manpower. The problem presented by chronic underemployment on the part of large numbers of landless agricultural workers is of a long term character. Very low wage levels and low levels of productivity are but symptoms of this problem.”
3.3. Remedial Measures for Creating Rural Employment:
Agriculture even now is a depressed industry and as such full employment is not possible in agriculture. The Planning Commission observes, “Taking a broad view, an increase in agricultural production would lead to a reduction in under-employment rather than to the creation of new jobs in the rural areas.
4. Steps to Solve the Problem of Rural Unemployment:
The problem of unemployment in India is alarming. It has adversely affected the social life of many individuals. Thus, keeping in view the different aspects of the problem, some steps are suggested which will be helpful to solve the problem of rural unemployment and other types of urban unemployment.
5. Government Policy Measures to Remove Unemployment:
(i) National Rural Employment Programme
(ii)Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme
(iii) Integrated Rural Development Programme
(iv) Food for Work Programme
(v) Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment
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